Most people will think of a DS18B20 temperature sensor first, but this sensor is only capable of measuring temperatures up to 125C. In order to measure temperatures greater than 100C you will need something with a greater temperature range and resistance. This is the sensor you need! We have used a PT100 resistance type high temperature probe which is often used in industrial applications.
Using this probe you can measure a temperature range between 30-350C. The module itself is compatible 3.3V-5.5V supply, so Arduino, STM32 and other microcontrollers are compatible.